Mobile telecom


Roles and actors

Governments as spectrum license providers


Mobile Network Operators (MNOs)

Usually, a small number of operators (3-6 operators for instance) have a market share of 90% of a national market. In some countries, where there has not yet been a regulatory push for liberalization, there still is a monopoly, for instance for a state MNO.


Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs)

Mobile Virtual Network Operators buy airtime as a package at wholesale prices, and repackage it. An MVNO does not have a commission arrangement with its MNO, instead the access to the network is sold at a bulk price and the MVNO then applies its own tariffs to customers, aiming to manage their usage within the MVNO’s purchased allocation of network services. The arrangements with the MNO are commercial and depend upon many factors, as the level of service purchased can vary considerably.


Sales intermediaries

This can be brokers, resellers, dealers, etc. They can be affiliated in an agency capacity with a network operator or they can be independent, and they will usually be rewarded through a commission.


Size of the market


Macro economic drivers of change

About mobile penetration degree TBC…


Regulatory drivers

One of the main regulatory concerns has been with aspects of MNOs’ tariffs for relatively infrequently used services such as ‘roaming’ charges.